* EF Lightning Terminal
* EF Lightning Carrier
* EF Lightning Counter
E.F.* BASIC COMPONENTS
An effective lightning protection system is composed of a lightning air terminal at the top, lightning counter and earthing at the bottom, and an electrically sealed conductor linking both ends.
*E.F.* LIGHTNING TERMINAL
The worldwide patented *E.F.* Lightning Terminal is the top part of the *E.F* Carrier System of Lightning Protection. The *E.F.* Lightning Terminal is made of material resistant to high voltage and is the place where upward streamers are emitted. During a lightning event, the strong ambient electric field causes the stripping of electrons from the lightning terminal to occur, and arcing follows. The electric field strength increases as the cumulo-nimbus gets closer to the lightning terminal.
The emission of the *E.F.* Lightning Terminal increases to 6x1012 electron/sec per microamp of current during the approach of a downward leader.
This unique picture gives the *E.F.* Lightning Terminal a time advantage in the competition of the upward streamer generation.
An *E.F.* Lightning Terminal installed on top of the building can intercept lightning via Early Streamer Emission. The protection radius of the *E.F.* Lightning Terminal increases during this event. Area within the protection radius is safe from lightning strikes. The *E.F.* Lighting Terminal is also designed to offset interferences due to ground protrusions.
*E.F. LIGHTNING CARRIER
The worldwide patented *E.F.* Lightning Carrier is the central portion of the self-enclosed *E.F.* Carrier System of Lightning Protection.
The function of *E.F.* Lightning Carrier is to safely conduct the high voltage lightning energy from the lightning terminal down to the ground. No side flashing occurs. The impedance of traditional downconductor mechanism raises the voltage to over 1 MV when lightning current is flowing through. As a result, side flashing often occurs and leads to damage to building integrity, life and property.
The *E.F.* Lightning Carrier is compose of two identical conductors that one is coaxially placed about the other. The conductors are separated by a layer of insulator, which does not have the potential to cause side flashing. The dual channels of electrical conductance in the *E.F.* Lightning Carrier causes it to form a high capacitance between the two conducting layers. This design drastically reduces the impedance of the inner conductor and alleviates voltages rise in the lightning carrier due to transience. The possibility for the occurrence of side flashing is hence very low. The *E.F.* Lightning Carrier can safely be fitted around building corners and even inside the building.
*E.F.* LIGHTNING COUNTER
The *E.F.* Lightning Counter keeps track of the number strikes that the *E.F.* Carrier System of Lightning Protection intercepts. The *E.F.* Lightning Counter is small, lightweight and waterproof. It can operate normally in extreme climatic conditions. It does not need a battery source to operate nor does it need to be regularly maintained.
Each time a lightning pulse travels down the *E.F.* Lightning Carrier, the local electromagnetic field rises sharply and causes the *E.F.* Lightning Counter to advance by one count.
The E.F. Lightning Counter can record up to 999,999 lightning strikes. The counter is triggered whenever it encounters a 1.5kA impulse current in 1.5 microseconds duration. The counter cannot be reset.
The *E.F.* Lightning Counter provides data, which can be used to analyze the performance of the entire lightning protection system.
For high-rise residential and commercial buildings, transmissions and microwave towers and other civil structures, the *E.F.* Lightning Counter should be installed at the bottom of the lightning protection system. The *E.F.* Lightning Carrier fits through the internal aperture of the *E.F.* Lightning Counter. The *E.F.* Lightning Counter should be placed such that the lightning counter is clearly visible.
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